Pop Art was born in Britain in the mid 1950s. The word POP was created by the art critic Lawrence Alloway who believed Pop Art was a new type of art which was inspired by the image of popular culture.
It was the brain-child of several young subversive artists – as most modern art tends to be. The first application of the term Pop Art occurred during discussions among artists who called themselves the Independent Group (IG), which was part of the Institute of Contemporary Art in London, begun around 1952-53. A second concept of Pop Art was developing in the USA towards the end of the 50s.
Pop Art appreciates popular culture, or what we also call “material culture.” It does not critique the consequences of materialism and consumerism; it simply recognizes its pervasive presence as a natural fact.
Pop followed the foundation of the non-art movement ‘DADA’, that started the groundwork to abstract art, gave the prelude to postmodernism celebrating the ‘anti-art’ and would lay the foundation for Surrealism. Following this trend started by Dada that introduced the used of mass-produced object into the final piece, Pop art employs aspects of mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects.
British and American Pop developed in two different ways: in the United States, it marked a return to hard-edged composition and representational art opposed to the post war Abstract Expressionism.By contrast, the origin in post-War Britain, while employing irony and parody, was more academic with a focus on the dynamic and paradoxical imagery of American popular culture as powerful, manipulative symbolic devices that were affecting whole patterns of life, while improving prosperity of a society.Early pop art in Britain was a matter of ideas fuelled by American popular culture viewed from afar, while the American artists were inspired by the experience of living within that culture. While American Pop art was known to be anonymous, emblematic and aggressive, the English Pop art was more referential and subjective. English Pop artists used to deal with popular culture and technology primarily as themes or metaphors. American Pop artists were more into these ideas. For example, Andy Warhol’s motto was “I think everybody should be a machine” and actually tried to make it artworks that looked like there were made by a machine.
EDOARDO PAOLOZZI ‘I was a Rich Man’s Plaything 1947 (Left)
RICHARD HAMILTON ‘Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different, so appealing?’ 1956 (Right)
ROY LICHTENSTEIN Cover for Newsweek’s, 1964 (Left)
ROBERT INDIANA ‘Love’, 1964v (Right)
ANDY WARHOL Untitled, 1967; Campbell’s Soup 1968
In the 50′s in England, and in the 60′s in the United States, art was rather a chaos of chaos of consumption, advertising, television, comics and fashion. Art reinvented itself more than ever before because of the pop art movement, which is still highly appreciated by people today. Today, Pop Art is still very popular, whether we’re talking about old originals selling for thousands of pounds or copies of those which are selling in large numbers for a small price. It’s clear that pop art has became more than just a statement and it’s impossible to ignore, it’s absolutely everywhere you go, in everyday life places, often used for advertising.
These days Pop and its almighty influence is on full view in all main art museums. Pop Life is art in a material world. The pop lesson is reflected in the work of artists of subsequent generations who have infiltrated the publicity machine and the marketplace as a deliberate strategy; Keith Haring, Richard Prince, Damien Hirst, Takashi Murakamia and others are just a few who achieved art stardom in the eighties and nineties by co-opting the Pop tactics.
Keith Haring (Top Left); Richard Price (Top Right)
Damien Hirst (Bottom Left); Takashi Murakamia (Bottom Right)
The use of famous photographs of celebrities, politicians, and products as starting points for their designs is a constant factor in Pop. Conceptually the pop artists generally were asking this question: if these are the people and things that our culture produces and loves, what does that say about the culture itself?
Vomiting Pop Stars by Pablo Iranzo
My first trial will be Hamilton kind of collage. And so I “steal” a bunch of images from internet…
…and I try to stick them together. After adding and removing many more, the final result it’s actually acceptable:
“WHAT ARE WE REALLY FEEDING WITH?’
In pure pop style, I let myself getting inspired by everything that was surrounding me and repeating itself every time I walked out the door and opened internet; McDonald, television, social networks, iphone, images at the daily news… then I put them all together in a collage titled “WHAT ARE WE REALLY FEEDING WITH?’
Next, the multi-images kind of portrait in Warhol style. It is my first trial and, to do so, I follow the class that Eraldo gave on class last week (http://tv.adobe.com/watch/the-complete-picture-with-julieanne-kost/creating-a-triptych/). My original picture is a simple shot of myself ‘incongnito’
From here, I start by applying the method that Julienne Kost suggests to get the first 3 then 6 and finally 9 images. Once the composition is ready, I apply the layers needed to create different colours and effects. this is the final result:
Next test is the classic Warhol portrait, inspired at the famous Merilyn one. In this case, after flicking around google for a while, this tutorial appears to be rather easy to follow http://www.creativebloq.com/photoshop/make-your-own-pop-art-image-11121384 . My girlfriend Erika is my muse, this is what she looks like
After some work and not without problems, here is the final work. The hair was the main issue, after covering the lot with a solid brown layer (and unable to multiply properly the brown and the black parts) …
eventually I decided to keep it dark and only leave a few tips in brown.
Pop is a very important movement and trend in the contemporary art. It is a very lively and expressive way to reach the feelings of the viewer. Through their colourful images, artist such as Warhol and Lichtenstein have managed to effect not only their generation but also the current and probably future generations of artist and their influence is here to stay. I admit that I like pop, from now on I am going to keep a copy of a pop portrait on my walls…